- Industrial solid wastes are also sorted out as biodegradable and non-degradable wastes. Biodegradable wastes are generated by cotton mills, food processing units, paper mills, and textile factories.
- Non-biodegradable wastes are generated by thermal power plants which produce fly ash; integrated iron and steel plants which produce blast furnace slag and steel melting slag
- Industries manufacturing aluminium, zinc and copper produce mud and tailings. Fertilizer industries produce gypsum.
- Hazardous wastes such as inflammables, composite explosives or highly reactive substances are produced by industries dealing in metals, chemicals, drugs, pharmaceuticals, dyes, pesticides, rubber goods etc.
- The disposal of non-degradable industrial solid wastes, if not done by a proper and suitable method, may cause serious threat to the environment.
- New innovations have led to different uses of waste material
- Nowadays, fly ash and slag from the steel industry are utilised by the cement industry.
- Large quantities of toxic wastes are usually destroyed by controlled incineration, whereas small quantities are burnt along with factory garbage in open bins.
- Moreover, solid wastes if not managed effectively, affect the components of the environment
STRATEGIES TO CONTROL ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
- Solid waste is not the only waste in household garbage box. there are medical, agricultural, industrial and mining wastes.
- improper disposal of wastes is one of the major causes of environmental degradation. Therefore, the management of wastes is of utmost importance.
Collection and Disposal
- Domestic wastes are collected in small bins, which are then transferred to community bins by private or municipal workers.
- From these community bins, these are collected and carried to the disposable site. At the site, garbage is sorted out and separated into biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials.
- Non-biodegradable materials such as plastic, glass, metal scraps etc. are sent for recycling.
- Biodegradable wastes are deposited in land fills and are converted into compost.
- The waste if not collected in garbage bins, finds its way into the sewers.
- Non-biodegradable wastes like polythene bag, metal scraps, etc. choke the sewers and cause inconvenience.
- Polythene bags, if swallowed by cattle can cost their lives also.
- The poor management causes health problems leading to epidemics due to contamination of ground water.
- It is specially hazardous for those who are in direct contact with the waste such as rag pickers and workers involved in waste disposal, as they are the ones who handle waste materials mostly without protective device such as gloves or water proof boots and gas masks.