Environment Chapter from NCERT Science (Class-X-Chapter-16th-Management of Natural Resources)

  • Ganga Action Plan. This multi-crore project came about in 1985 because the quality of the water in the Ganga was very poor 
  • Coliform is a group of bacteria, found in human intestines, whose presence in water indicates contamination by disease-causing microorganisms
  • three R’s to save the environment: Reduce, Recycle and Reuse.

Forests And Wild Life

  • Forests are “biodiversity hot spots”

Sustainable Management

  • The Chipko Andolan (‘Hug the Trees Movement’) was the result of a grassroot level effort to end the alienation of people from their forests. The movement originated from an incident in a remote village called Reni in Garhwal, high-up in the Himalayas during the early 1970s.
  • Himachal Pradesh had evolved a local system of canal irrigation called kulhs

Water Harvesting

  • Watershed management emphasises scientific soil and water conservation in order to increase the biomass production. 
  • The aim is to develop primary resources of land and water, to produce secondary resources of plants and animals for use in a manner which will not cause ecological imbalance.
  • Watershed management not only increases the production and income of the watershed community, but also mitigates droughts and floods and increases the life of the downstream dam and reservoirs. 
  • Water harvesting is an age-old concept in India. Khadins, tanks and nadisin Rajasthan, bandharasand talsin Maharashtra, bundhis in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, aharsand pynesin Bihar, kulhsin Himachal Pradesh, ponds in the Kandi belt of Jammu region, and eris(tanks) in Tamil Nadu, surangamsin Kerala, and kattasin Karnataka are some of the ancient water harvesting, including water conveyance, structures still in use today

Coal And Petroleum

  • Coal and petroleum were formed from the degradation of bio-mass millions of years ago and hence these are resources that will be exhausted in the future contain hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur.
  • When combustion takes place in insufficient air (oxygen), then carbon monoxide is formed instead of carbon dioxide.
  • Of these products, the oxides of sulphur and nitrogen and carbon monoxide are poisonous at high concentrations and carbon dioxide is a green-house gas they are huge reservoirs of carbon and if all of this carbon is converted to carbon dioxide, then the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is going to increase leading to intense global warming.

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