Environment Chapter from NCERT Science (IMPORTANT CHAPTERS FROM NCERT SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENT PORTION) Class VIII-Chapter-7-Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate

  • Rainfall is measured by an instrument called the rain gauge. It is basically a measuring cylinder with a funnel on top to collect rainwater. The day to-day condition of the atmosphere at a place with respect to the temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind speed, etc., is called the weather at that place. 
  •  temperature, humidity, and other factors are called the elements  of the weather 
  • The average weather pattern taken over a longtime, say 25 years, is called the climate of the place 
  • The western region of India, for example Rajasthan, will show that the temperature is high during most part of the year. 
  • But during winter, which lasts only for a few months, the temperature is quite low.
  • This region receives very little rainfall. 
  • This is the typical desert climate. It is hot and dry. 
  • The northeastern India receives rain for a major part of the year.
  • Therefore, we can say that the climate of the north-east is wet. 

(i) The polar regions 

  • The polar regions present an extreme climate. 
  •  These regions are covered with snow and it is very cold for most part of the year. 
  • For six months the sun does not set at the poles while for the other six months the sun does not rise. 
  • In winters, the temperature can be as low as –37°C. 
  • Animals living there have adapted to these severe conditions. 
  • Polar bears, the penguin many types of fishes, muskoxen, reindeers, foxes, seals, whales, and birds have been seen in this region. 
  • Siberian crane that comes from Siberiato places like Bharatpur in Rajasthan and Sultanpur in Haryana 

(ii) The tropical rainforests 

  •  The tropical region has generally a hot climate because of its location around the equator.
  • Even in the coldest month the temperature is generally higher than about 15°C. 
  • During hot summers, the temperature may cross 40°C. 
  • Days and nights are almost equal in length throughout the year. 
  • These regions get plenty of rainfall. 
  • An important feature of this region is the tropical rain forests.
  • Tropical rainforests are found in Western Ghats and Assam in India, Southeast Asia, Central America and Central Africa. 
  • Because of continuous warmth and rain, this region supports wide variety of plants and animals.   
  • The major types of animals living in the rainforests are monkeys, apes, gorillas, lions, tigers, elephants, leopards, lizards, snakes, birds and insects. 
  • The lion-tailed macaque (also called Beard ape) lives in the rainforests of Western Ghats 
  • Many tropical animals have sensitive hearing, sharp eyesight, thick skin and a skin colour which helps them to camouflage by blending with the surroundings. 
  • This is to protect them from predators. 


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